Corruption’s existed in almost everywhere we stand on. Corruption has made instability in government, private company even in household. A great empire like Roman Empire was destroyed because of corruption. VOC, one of the biggest organization of merchant in colonization era was faced bankruptcy because corruption done by its employees. So, if a great empire and great company can banished by corruption, what make us so confident that Indonesia can suffer for the corruption. The important thing is that we have to aware and self-correction.
Indonesia has faced the complexity of corruption since this country declared its independence. But, since then, number of corruption cases in Indonesia hasn’t decreased significantly yet. In the millennium era, Indonesia still stagnant in pulverizing corruption though government has established an institution focused in revealing corruption case in Indonesia. The institution’s called KPK (Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi). Conflict of interest still play role in making ineffectiveness performance of KPK.
How severe is corruption in Indonesia? To answer this question, we have to make comparison between Indonesia and other country. In this article, I (writer) compare Indonesia with other country in ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asia Nation) because the characteristic of people in Indonesia isn’t so different with people of country in ASEAN, also ASEAN is complex. There are developed country, semi-developed country, developing country or under developing country.
We use Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) to calculate the score of corruption severity. Corruption perception index indicate perception of the degree of corruption according to the business people and nation’s analyst point of view. The score is range between 10 (highly clean) and 0 (highly corrupt). So, the survey conducted from business people and analyst is compiled. The source of information is credible. By looking the score we can compare the real levels of corruption in one country relative to other countries. After the score of CPI calculated, we rank the CPI from the country which has highest score to the lowest one. We call it Corruption Perception Ranking.
From data collection from 2007 until 2012, the trend of corruption in Indonesia is better from year to year. Almost every year, CPI increase about 0.2 point, except from 2009 to 2010 (stagnant). If we compare Indonesia to other country in ASEAN, the improvement in Indonesia is better relative to other but that doesn’t make Indonesia better in corruption compared with the developed country like Singapore which has the biggest score in ASEAN and one of the best five clean countries in the world. The CPI score of Singapore is range from 9.2-9.3 from 2007 to 2011. But in the 2012, Singapore’s score dropped to 8.7. How about our close neighbor, Malaysia? It has advanced more than us in corruption. The CPI score of Malaysia is range form 4.3-5.1 from 2007 to 2012. But the trend is decreasing from year to the year. The country which has the lowest score in ASEAN is Myanmar (Burma). Its score range from 1.3-1.4 and disposed to be stagnant from 2007-2012.
How about the rank? In 2012, Indonesia is in 6th compared to 9 other countries in ASEAN. As the physically biggest countries in ASEAN, we should be ashamed for this condition. Indonesia is democracy country which highest authority’s held by the society. But, unfortunately, most of case is dominated by corruption done by the functionary of the nation or we can call them our representative. If our representative wasn’t credible anymore, how could our country become an effective democracy nation? How could we make our country run in effective capacity to bring prosperity of society into reality? In addition, are we ready enough to face ASEAN Economic Community with negative perspective from our neighbors?
Insani Arif Situmorang
Staf Divisi Penerbitan BOE 2013/2014